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The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins presents:

Examples from the Richard Baker Collection of
Roman Countermarks


Text by Richard Baker ( and Andreas Pangerl (cassiporis,  Fotos taken by Mike Connor, reworked by Hannes Mayer (,
Questions ?
For questions please contact Andreas Pangerl.

Coins of this private collection are also included in the virtual Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins'
Alphabeticial Systematic Catalogue , and in the Museum Main Section sorted by host coin.
Please see also in the Legionary Countermark section.

All countermarks below are referenced to "MPC" = Pangerl Collection Systematic Catalogue Number,
or the Howgego Greek Imperial Countermark Catalogue Number as appropriate.

Click on images to enlarge !

Host coin maybe Augustus, but more probably Claudius: AMR monogram (Amorim, Asia) (19mm 4.9g) Howgego 604

Sestertius of Augustus (P. Licinius Stolo): APRON - Lucius Apronius (governor in Africa & elsewhere under Tiberius) 37mm 25.3g
There are other versions of APRONI. Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 112

Rare portrait sestertius of Tiberius, facing left: ARAT - Arationibus 35mm 24.7g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 7
Altar Lugdunum to 'Rome&Augustus'
The ARAT monogram ctmk. seems to be found only on Tiberius Sestertii and As' minted under Augustus' later years. Arationibus appears to be a title for the top imperial fiscal administrator within designated area of operation.

2 As of Augustus: AVG (both coins maybe ancient cast-counterfeits) (29mm 9.6g; 28mm 11.0g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 75
AVG: The abbreviation of Augustus. It's usage here is an Imperial title as opposed to a personal name. Some instances of this countermark may refer to Augustus himself, but, more likely most instances refer to Tiberius and possibly Caligula. Originally bestowed upon Octavian in 27BC as an honorific title, it later became a title adopted by each reigning emperor.

Barbaric balkan ctmked As: AVG, TICAE (26mm 8.3g; 24.5mm 4.8g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 83, 90
The left specimen also has an 'incuse' S, which may signify the coins downgrading to a Semis (mentioned in another listing)
The TICAE refers to the emperor Tiberius Caesar. The abbreviation of AVG is as as mentioned before most likely another title for Tiberius.

Dupondius of Antonia: BON meaning 'Bonum' =  'good' , 33mm 15.6g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 42

Early As of Augustus: unknown countermark BPV 27mm 8.0g

Sestertius of Augustus: CAE, MT(?) (possibly NP?) 33.5mm 20.1g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 77, imitation 80 (?)
Since the CAE (for Caesar) is of barbaric style, the other ctmk. is most likely a blundered, barbaric version of IMP.

Unknown coin with rare ctmk's: CAESAR 25mm 10.0g bevelled edge

Imitative As of Drusus struck after 22AD: Monogram for title CAESAR (25 by 28mm 9.7g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 43,
Here we have the identifying host coin which proves that the earlier assumption that this was a Germanicus ctmk. is not possible. Germanicus died in 19AD. The earliest possible date for this host coin is after 22AD.

As of Augustus: Caesar monogram (27mm 8.8g; 27mm 9.7g; 27mm 9.1g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 43.
At first personal as well as a family name, 'CAESAR' became the normal title used by the designated successor to the throne. Originally thought to refer to Germanicus, it is now apparent that it was meant to refer to Tiberius as designated heir and later as reigning 'Caesar'.

Sestertius of Claudius: Balkan Mint: Capricorn with symbol beneath 38mm 26.4g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94,
The Capricorn, originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasianus' reign also. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder (as on Tiberian dupondii)

Another imitative sestertius of Claudius: Capricorn with symbol beneath (38mm 26.4g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94

As of Claudius: Capricorn; object (globe? rudder?) beneath 29mm 11.9g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94

Provincial of Tiberius from Commagene: Cornucopiae ctmk. (29mm 13.3g Howgego 401)

AE 24 mm of Augustus from Colonia Patricia, Spain: C•PA monogram ctmk. for Colonia Patricia (9.9g)

Imitative Sestertius (brockage) of Claudius: DV for dupondius (32mm 11.7g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 85

3 barbaric immitative Sestertii of Claudius: DV - revaluation to a dupondius (34mm 22.1g; 34mm 13.7g; 33mm 13.9g),Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 85.
The DV countermark which is short for Dupondius is in this form found on coins out of the 'balkans'. It is almost always accompanied by an edge 'cut' near the 3 o'clock position.

Imitative Sestertius: DV ctmk. (retrograde) - cut in half for change (35mm longwise 14.1g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 85

2 coins of Tiberius from Antioch, Syria: GAB (Gaius, year two); GAG (Gaius, year three) (26mm 13.39g; 26mm 13.5g) Howgego 521 & 522
There are no known AE issues from Antioch for Caligulas short reign.

Sestertius Nero Claudius Drusus: GALBA ctmk. (35mm 27.6g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 86 =  Howgego 591). Rare latin GALBA ctmk. struck twice, once over earlier ctmk.

Another Sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus: GALBA ctmk. (38mm 26.8g) 'GALBA' struck twice, once over an ealier ctmk. Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 86.

Balkan mint As' of Nero: GALBA ctmk. in greek (28mm 10.7g; 28mm 9.9g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 92.

Sestertius Nero: GAL•CA for Galba Caesar 35mm 22.8g

Sestertius Nero: GAL•CA for Galba Caesar 35mm 24.3g
Two "rare" unlisted "latin" variant ctmk's instead of the usual greek GALKAI
Both coins from balkan mint (Perinthus?)
There are so far 5 known, all of which appear to be from the same ctmk. die.
3 are on Nero Sestertii, 1 is on a Claudius Sestertius and 1 is on an unknown Julio-Claudian Sestertius.

Large sestertius sized coin (33mm 18.1g) of Nero: mint of Perinthus
GALKAI = Galba Caesar - Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 93 = Howgego 527

Another example: same as above: 32mm 19.8g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 93

Modern fake cast coin resembling balkan Nero As with GALKAI ctmk., Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 93

Early Augustan Sestertius: Radiate head of Helios r.; std. lunar deity with crescent above head
Also referred to as a 'nailed helmet'. Sometimes this 'radiate' head is found struck twice on examples of Augustan sestertii and, occasionally, it is found paired with this standing lunar diety. This latter type should make the 'Helios' designation of the other countermark a certainty. Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 65.

As of Agrippa: Head of Hercules (Melqart?) 29mm 9.0g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 99

Hercules Head
Large 'pseudo' Sestertius of Claudius: Bearded head of Hercules in circle 35mm 18.8g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 99

As of Augustus cut for change: IMP - Imperator (27.5mm 6.7g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 79

IMP GAL (Imperator Galba 23mm 7.9g); IMPOTHO (Imperator Otho 23mm 8.2g); IMP-VES(retrograde)P (Imperator Vespasianus 23mm 8.2g); Coins of Nero from Tripolis
The title 'Imperator' referred to the undisputed head of the armies.

Rare spanish denarius of Galba: IMP•VES (18mm 3.2g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 100
The coins obverse inscription reads Imperator Galba. It was struck when he was nominally declaring himself the general of the Senate and people of Rome, but not (albeit deceptively) the emperor. The ctmk. IMP•VES says the same words, but with a different meaning. There the head of the armies is the declared emperor.

Denarius of Vespasianus 72AD: IMP•VES (18mm 3.2g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 100
Extremely rare. Only a few known eastern mint denarii, which have been mistakenly countermarked with his own monogram.

Marcus Antonius, Augustus, Claudius/Agrippina Cistophorii: IMPVESAVG (Imperator Vespasianus Augustus 26mm 10.7g; 26mm 11.1g; 25.5mm 10.4g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 101
Used exclusively on Cistophorii.

Provincial of Traianus: JG (modern punched ctmk - could be 19th or 20th century) (27mm 10.1g)

AE of Augustus: KLIA in circle - Claudius year 12 (52AD) 2.7g Howgego 546

Hadrian from Antioch, Syria: Laurel branch ctmk. (associated with Apollo at Antioch) (25mm 11.2g; 26mm 16.1g) Howgego 378

AE of Augustus (or Tiberius): LII - Legion 2 (27mm 12.0g)

Sestertius of Claudius: Gallic Mint: LVI and club of Hercules ctmk. for Legion VI Victrix 36mm 22.8g
The legion VI Victrix was Galba's personal legion, under his command. It was the first to declare him emperor.

Minerva standing
Vespasianus coin of Antioch: Minerva ctmk 29mm 17.0g Howgego 245
This countermark is usually found on Domitian coins, occasionally on Nero coins and extremely rare on Vespasian.

Minerva standing
Domitianus coin of Antioch: Minerva ctmk (28mm 13.5g)
Minerva was Domitians favorite diety. As such this probably had some sort of official imperial as opposed to colonial use.

Sestertius of Agrippina Sr.: NCAPR ctmk. 35mm 26.4g
NCAPR: There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype

Sestertius Claudius: NCAPR ctmk.; gallic mint (35mm 24.1g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype
Both a brockage of a sestertius and ctmked with NCAPR

Another rare example: Sestertius of Claudius: NCAPR ctmk.; Also a brockage as well as a ctmk. Unofficial mint (35mm 24.5g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype

4 modern fakes of Claudius Sestertii with NCAPR ctmk. (all 34mm; 22.4g; 22.9g; 22.9g; 23.9g)
Top two appear to be copperish or bronze coating over a 'pewter' colored metal - flaking at edges on top left example.
Photographed and documented as a fake in Gregory G. Brunks articles, 'The Ancient Countermarks', appearing in the Nov., Dec. 1974 and Jan. 1975 issues of the 'Numismatist'.

Sestertius of Nero: [PI] for Palmyra and the aramaic T for Tadmor (original name for Palmyra) 35.5mm 21.8g Howgego 683
An almost exact specimen of this countermark was noted on a Sestertius of Nero with a Port of Ostia reverse.

As of Nero: incuse PR (31mm 12.6g), related to Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 87
PR - Populi Romani - connected with Vindex' revolt in Gaul in March 68AD.
Very unusual as an incuse ctmk.

Sestertius of Nero: PR (retrograde) - revolt of Vindex 34mm 21.3g, related to Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 87

As of Nero: PR - Populi Romani - Revolt of Vindex 27mm 9.6g, related to Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 87

Provincial with PR (25mm 8.7g); Provincial with PR(retrograde) and LXV = Legion 15 (27.5mm 14.3g); 1 As of Nero with retrograde PR (29mm 14.3), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 87

Imitative sestertius of Claudius: British or, more likely Gallic Mint: PROB ctmk. = "Probatum" meaning approved. (41mm 24.8g), related to Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 2, or 23

Unofficial Sestertius Claudius: PROB (- Probatum -> approved) 37mm 23.9g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 2, or 23

Possible imitative sestertius of Claudius: PRO, BON, IMP 38mm 24.7g, from Germania inferior
1. PRO = Probatum - 'approved', Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48
2. BON = Bonum - 'good', Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 42
3. IMP = Imperator, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47

Sestertius Claudius: PRO, IMP ctmks. Unofficial mint 36mm 26.6g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48, 47
Probatum and Imperator here combined to say Imperatori Probavit - 'with imperial approval'.

Sestertius of Claudius: 4 ctmks: PRO, TIAV, IMP, BON (35mm 21.5g)
Denominational countermarks from Germania Inferior
1. PRO - Probatum meaning 'approved', countermark MPC 48
2. TIAV -Tiberius Augustus i.e. the emperor Claudius, countermark MPC 54
3. IMP - Imperator, countermark MPC 47
4. BON - Bonum - for 'good', countermark MPC 42

Another imitative Sestertius of Claudius: ROB ctmk. A rare variant of PROB 36.5mm 26.8g, subtype countermark to Martini Pangerl Collection 2, or 23

3 early Augustan As with multiple ctmk's: 2 coins have an incuse S. One has an raised S. Possibly revaluated to a semis? Also present are AVG and TI.CAE
(24mm 6.3g; 25mm 4.7g; 24.5mm 8.5g - this one is heavy. Maybe another reason for the ctmk), Countermarks Martini Pangerl Collection 83, equivalent to 4, 90.

As of Nero: SPQR Mark of Vindex (27.5mm 10.2g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 26, 27
SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus - 'the senate and people of Rome'

As of Augustus:  = Tiberius Caesar Permissu Augusti ("Tiberius Caesar", with the permission of Augustus) (25mm 11.0g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 28.
T•C•P•A used near the end of Augustus' reign, but possibly before he designated Tiberius as his heir.

Barbaric As of Agrippa: TIAV 26mm 5.7g
Dupondius of Germanicus: TIN (TIAV) 27mm 12.4g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection54
TIAV: The abbreviation of Tiberius Augustus. In this instance not the emperor Tiberius, but rather Claudius whose first name was Tiberius. The name Claudius, though not present is meant to be implied by the usage of this countermark.

Sestertius Nero Claudius Drusus: TIAV (35mm 29.4g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 54
TIAV - Tiberius Augustus i.e the emperor Claudius

2 As of Augustus; 1 As of Tiberius: TIB (27mm 11.3g; 27mm 9.6g; 24mm 10.6g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 29
TIB abbreviation for Tiberius. Almost always found on the As' with the altar of Lugdunum reverse.

Very worn coin with  monogram ctmk. for Tiberii Caesarii Augusti Filii = Tiberius "the Caesar, son of Augustus", Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 32.

6 worn DIVVS As of Augustus: TI•C•A•
All 6 ctmk's appear to be from the same die and are possibly modern fakes on genuine worn coins.
At least 4 more coins have been seen on ebay that appear to be from the same ctmk die.
2 appear to be countermarked on the obverse and 4 to be countermarked on the reverse. Weights vary from 7.7g to 10.4g and diameters from 25 to 28mm. Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 89.
TI•C•A• is thought to refer to Tiberius Claudius Augustus (or by some as Tiberius Caesar Augustus -> still referring to Claudius).

2 AE possibly Flavian: TONZOY The Tonzos was a river in Thrace. (21mm 4.3g; 22mm 3.6g)
There is an example of a 35mm coin of Domitian from Nicea in Bythinia with the same countermark.

Early As of Augustus (moneyer P. Lurius Agrippa): AVG, VAR (thought to be Varus monogram) 26mm 10.1g. Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 52.
VAR is usually on Lugdunum As, only few examples are known on moneyer AEs.

Sestertius Claudius: VESPA monogram ctmk; Extremely rare on this host coin (34mm 27.0g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 35.
VESPA monogram for Vespasian. Two similiar examples known, published by Garcia-Bellido in a paper devoted to some Hispanic provincial cmks.

As of Nero: VESPA monogram 29mm 10.9g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 35.

As of Nero: VESPA monogram 30mm 10.6g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 35
The VESPA monogram ctmk. was struck in such a way as to not deface the image of Nero. Vespasianus was never in revolt against Nero, only the hated usurpers after him (this refers to Otho and Vitellius but not Galba, whom Vespasianus honored with a postumous coinage). By pairing his monogram next to the image and legends of Nero, he was trying to create a visual link to the now extinct Julio-Claudian dynasty.

2 As of Nero: X for Legion 10 Gemina (29mm 10.7g; 29mm 14.2g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 82.
The legion X Gemina was stationed in Pannonia in 68AD and took no active role in the revolt against Nero. However, they did not back Galba as emperor and therefore decided to strike their own emblem on the coins of Nero, in such a way as not to deface the portrait.

Sestertius Nero: X countermark for Legion X. Gemina (my opinion) 34mm 23.1g, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 82
Note the "cut" on the cheek
Richard Baker has several examples of this Sestertii, two of them also have the cut across the cheek.

Sestertius Nero: X countermark for Legion X. Gemina (36mm 22.6g), Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 82.

AE of Antioch (possibly Claudius): XII - Legion 12 struck over Cornucopiae; (26mm 12.9g Howgego 737)

Unknown CMK
Sestertius of Caligula with unknown incuse ctmk (35mm 28.9g) (resembles overlapping 'M's)

Unknown CMK
As of Caligula: unknown ctmk 28mm 11.0g
Scarcer host coin struck in the last few months of his reign.

25, 26, 27,
Sestertius of Severus Alexander: 3 numerals resembling '25', '26' and '27'
similar in style to that found on 16th century 'spanish' Flanders&Brabant coins (28mm 18.9g)
Possibly used as a weight of some kind in one of the various 'Guild Halls' - traces of lead along one section of the rim has been removed

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