Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins
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("Vindex" Countermarks)

This section covers
"X", "SPQR", "SPO", "SPR", "PR",

"X" for LEGIO X GEMINA on Nero Dupondius, Pannonia Superior (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 82), possible applied not during Vindex, but later during Vespasianus


"SPQR" on Nero's face, possibly related to the Vindex uprising (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 27)


Known imitation countermarks of the more common "SPQR" are "SPO" and  "SPR", on Asses and Dupondi of Nero, below a 'SPO' example.


"PR" for "Populus Romanus" on Nero and Claudius Coins (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 87), exists in various shapes and sizes, also in mirror/retrograde

Little "PR" on a NeroDupondius

Another little "PR" (?) on Nero, maybe a SPQR imitation ?

Large "PR" in mirror writing on Nero sestertius

Punched "PR" on Nero As

"PR" on imitation Claudius AEs originating in the Balkan Region

To the left a regular "PR" (on Claudius).
The middle coin shows "PR" in mirror and  in addition a "LXV" countermark, likely for the Legio XV Apollinaris (on Claudius) (see also legionary cmks).
The coin to the right shows a retrograde "RP" variation (host coins is from Nero)