8.3. VESPASIANUS COUNTERMARKS
This section covers
"VESPAS", "IMPVES", "IMPVESAVC", "Capricorn"
"VESPAS" in ligature on (sometimes halved)
Nero Asses / Dupondi, applied during the Civilis uprising in Germania Superior
(countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 35)
very rare occurance of "VESPA"
a Claudius Sestertius
"IMP VES" commonly on republican denarii, sometimes on augustean denari, and very rare on later coins. Known to us are two pieces on Tiberius, one on Caligula, one on Galba, one on Vespasian. Countermarked in the early reign of Vespasianus likley in Ephesos. (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 100)
on Republican Denari (incl. Legionary types of Marc Antony)
in mirror writing
On a Caesar Denari
on Caesar denari
On a cleopatra / Marc Antony denarius
On Augustean Denari
On Tiberius Denari
On a Caligula Denarius
On a Galba Denarius
On a Vespasian Denarius, clearly an error of the mint
"IMP VES AVC" on cistophorii of Marc Antony and Claudius. Countermarked in the early reign of Vespasianus in Ephesos. (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 101)
To the left a Cistophorus of Marcus Antonius, middle Augustus, to the
right a Claudius & Agrippina
Another countermark often attributed to Vespasianus during the civil war is the Capricorn, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region.
The countermark "Capricorn" on Augustus AEs is likely earlier and was applied in Sicily.
Claudius As with Capricorn countermark (countermark Martini
Pangerl Collection 94)
Claudius Sesterti with "Capricorn plus Instrument below"
(countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94)
another example with instrument (?) below the capricorn
"Capricorn" countermark on roman provinical
coin (could also be from Augustus times)
same provincial type with this countermark
another capricorn countermark, combined with Nike, and a holy instrument (?)
"Capricorn" and "Star"
above on Augustus Dupondius (This may also be a countermark from Sicilia
& applied before Vespasianus) (countermark Martini
Pangerl Collection 64)