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Denominations Page
 Denominations from Augustus until the End of the 3 Century A.D.:

in gold:

Double Aureus (rare, with emperor wearing radiate crown)

Aureus = 25 denari                                ca. 2 cm, ca. 7-7.8 gr

Half Aureus (quinarius) = 12.5 denari      rare

in silver:

Cistophorus = 3 denari                          ca. 2.8 cm,  ca. 10.1-10.5 gr

good silver
later only copper with more or less silver coating
Antoninianus = 2 denari                        ca. 2.3 cm, ca. 5.2-5.4 gr or often much less, emperor wears radiate crown

Denarius = 16 asses                              ca. 1.7-2.0 cm, ca. 3.3 gr

Half Denarius (quinarius) = 8 asses        ca. 1.5 cm, ca 1.4 gr

in brass:

Double Sestertius = 8 asses       ca. 3.7 cm, ca. 50 gr or often less, emperor wears radiate crown

Sestertius = 4 asses:                 ca. 3.0-3.8 cm, ca. 20-30 gr

Dupondius = 2 asses:               ca. 2.6-3.0 cm, ca. 10-12 gr, emperor wears radiate crown after Nero

Semis = half as                        ca. 2,0 cm, ca. 3-6 gr, emperor wears sometimes radiate crown

in copper / bronze:

As                                    ca. 2.6-3.0 cm, ca. 10-12 gr

Quadrans = quarter as        ca. 1.7 cm, ca. 3 gr

Please note that not all denominations were in use throughout the full period.
Also there was a tendency of inflation that reduced both the size and the content of precious metal over the centuries. E.g. late Antoniniani towards the end of the third century AD contain hardly any silver and often look like bronze coins.
Along this line the lower denominations like the quadrans and the semis became obsolete along the way, while the double pieces like Antoninianus or Double Sestertius were introduced only in the third century.
And of course the weights and sizes given are average values only.

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