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Part 2:   Emperors

All diplomas below have been published.


March 70 for Legio II Adiutrix (private collection, published in RMD V)


Complete Diploma of Titus for the province Noricum
outer side of tabula 1inner side of Tabula 1

outer side of tabula 2
(private collection, published P Weiß, ZPE)

Fragment of a Diploma from Titus (RGZM, Mainz, Germany):

The inner sides of tabulae I and II of Titus, from Egypt (British Museum, London)

Diploma for Syria, inner side of a Tabula 1 (from the art market)


(to follow)


Tabula 1, from Germania Inferior, the governor named is ImpTraianus Aug in 98 AD (Nijmegen Museum, NL)

other side of the same diploma from Germania inferior

Germania Inferior, a second example under Traian, governor is Neratius Priscus, a famous lawyer (RGZM Mainz, Germany):



The outer sides of tabulae I and II, from Hadrian, from Britannia, the soldier is from Pannonia, note the witnesses names on the right scan (British Museum, London)


Diploma from Germania Inferior under Hadrian, note the wire that holds the two tabulae together. During the consulship of Licinius Celer and Rufus, granting Roman citizenship and marriage rights, to a former cavalryman from Dacia of the IV Thracian cohort under the command of Lucius Porcius Crescens.  Germania Inferior was at that time under the governor Lucius Coelius Rufus (from the Axel Guttmann collection)


Example of a Roman Fleet Military Diploma under Hadrian, that granted Roman citizenship 26 years (Navy) of military service in the auxiliary forces to the veteran and his family. The below piece is from Hadrian's reign for either the praetorian fleet of Misena. (W.Eck, D.MacDonald, A.Pangerl, "Neue Diplome Italischer Truppen", ZPE 2002). (From a private collection)
Tabula I outer side                                                                                                       Tabula I  inner side


Antoninus Pius:

Complete Diploma of Antoninus Pius for the province of Pannonia inferior (from the art market)

Diploma Fragment of Tabula I, Antoninus Pius, unknown Province (from the art market)

(from a private collection)

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus:

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Diploma (from a private collection)

Marcus Aurelius and Commodus:

An example of a complete two page diploma, still wired together (seals are lost)

MILITARY DIPLOMA  of  MARCUS AURELIUS & his son COMMODUS, 23 March, 178 A.D., under the consulship of Sergius Scipio Orfitus and P. Velius Rufus, Britannia under the governor Ulpius Marcellus, to the cavalryman Thiophorus, a Dacian of the VII Thracian cohort, under the command of Ulpius Marcianus. (from the Axel Guttmann collection). This seems to be the most expensive military diploma to date, it was sold for 40,000 UK Pounds to an unknown bidder in a London auction house.


Diploma for Pannonia inferior, under Commodus, 192 AD (in a private collection)


Septimius Severus:

(to follow)


for an Equites Singulares Cohort of Caracalla (from the art market)


(scan to follow)

Severus Alexander:

Praetorian Cohort Diploma from Severus Alexander, the soldiers where recruited 25 years earlier late into the Civil War between Niger, Albinus, and Septimius Severus (published by W.Eck, D.MacDonald, A.Pangerl, "Neue Diplome Italischer Truppen", ZPE 2002). (From a private collection)

for the Classis Praetoria Misenensis, under Severus Alexander
(Weissenburg Museum, Germany)

Philippus I and II:

for a Praetorian Cohort of Philippus I (British Museum, London)

another example from the Weissenburg Museum in Germany