Double Aureus (rare, with emperor wearing radiate crown)
Aureus = 25 denari ca. 2 cm, ca. 7-7.8 gr
Half Aureus (quinarius) = 12.5 denari rare
Cistophorus = 3 denari ca. 2.8 cm, ca. 10.1-10.5 gr
later only copper with more or less silver coating
Antoninianus = 2 denari ca. 2.3 cm, ca. 5.2-5.4 gr or often much less, emperor wears radiate crown
Denarius = 16 asses ca. 1.7-2.0 cm, ca. 3.3 gr
Half Denarius (quinarius) = 8 asses ca. 1.5 cm, ca 1.4 gr
Double Sestertius = 8 asses ca. 3.7 cm, ca. 50 gr or often less, emperor wears radiate crown
Sestertius = 4 asses: ca. 3.0-3.8 cm, ca. 20-30 gr
Dupondius = 2 asses: ca. 2.6-3.0 cm, ca. 10-12 gr, emperor wears radiate crown after Nero
Semis = half as ca. 2,0 cm, ca. 3-6 gr, emperor wears sometimes radiate crown
in copper / bronze:
As ca. 2.6-3.0 cm, ca. 10-12 gr
Quadrans = quarter as ca. 1.7 cm, ca. 3 gr
Please note that not all
denominations were in use
the full period.
Also there was a tendency of inflation that reduced both the size and the content of precious metal over the centuries. E.g. late Antoniniani towards the end of the third century AD contain hardly any silver and often look like bronze coins.
Along this line the lower denominations like the quadrans and the semis became obsolete along the way, while the double pieces like Antoninianus or Double Sestertius were introduced only in the third century.
And of course the weights and sizes given are average values only.
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